The generation of potent opioid analgesics that lack the side effects of traditional opioids may be possible by targeting truncated splice variants of the μ-opioid receptor. μ-Opioids act through GPCRs that are generated from the
Zhigang Lu, Jin Xu, Grace C. Rossi, Susruta Majumdar, Gavril W. Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
BACKGROUND. Individuals treated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor anacetrapib exhibit a reduction in both LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in response to monotherapy or combination therapy with a statin. It is not clear how anacetrapib exerts these effects; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the kinetic mechanism responsible for the reduction in LDL and ApoB in response to anacetrapib.
METHODS. We performed a trial of the effects of anacetrapib on ApoB kinetics. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomized to background treatment of either placebo (
RESULTS. Anacetrapib markedly reduced the LDL-ApoB-100 pool size (PS) in both the placebo and ATV groups. These changes in PS resulted from substantial increases in LDL-ApoB-100 FCRs in both groups. Anacetrapib had no effect on LDL-ApoB-100 PRs in either treatment group. Moreover, there were no changes in the PCSK9 PS, FCR, or PR in either group. Anacetrapib treatment was associated with considerable increases in the LDL triglyceride/cholesterol ratio and LDL size by NMR.
CONCLUSION. These data indicate that anacetrapib, given alone or in combination with a statin, reduces LDL-ApoB-100 levels by increasing the rate of ApoB-100 fractional clearance.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00990808.
FUNDING. Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA. Additional support for instrumentation was obtained from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR000003 and UL1TR000040).
John S. Millar, Gissette Reyes-Soffer, Patricia Jumes, Richard L. Dunbar, Emil M. deGoma, Amanda L. Baer, Wahida Karmally, Daniel S. Donovan, Hashmi Rafeek, Laura Pollan, Junichiro Tohyama, Amy O. Johnson-Levonas, John A. Wagner, Stephen Holleran, Joseph Obunike, Yang Liu, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Michael E. Lassman, David E. Gutstein, Henry N. Ginsberg, Daniel J. Rader
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an age-dependent hematological malignancy. Evaluation of immune interactions that drive MM relies on in vitro experiments that do not reflect the complex cellular stroma involved in MM pathogenesis. Here we used Vk*MYC transgenic mice, which spontaneously develop MM, and demonstrated that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of MM progression and the response to treatment. We monitored Vk*MYC mice that had been crossed with
Camille Guillerey, Lucas Ferrari de Andrade, Slavica Vuckovic, Kim Miles, Shin Foong Ngiow, Michelle C.R. Yong, Michele W.L. Teng, Marco Colonna, David S. Ritchie, Martha Chesi, P. Leif Bergsagel, Geoffrey R. Hill, Mark J. Smyth, Ludovic Martinet
Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of neurons in many disease conditions as well as during normal aging; however, small-molecule agents that reduce oxidation have not been successful in preventing neurodegeneration. Moreover, even if an efficacious systemic reduction of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS/NOS) could be achieved, detrimental side effects are likely, as these molecules regulate normal physiological processes. A more effective and targeted approach might be to augment the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism only in the cells that suffer from oxidation. Here, we created several adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver genes that combat oxidation. These vectors encode the transcription factors NRF2 and/or PGC1a, which regulate hundreds of genes that combat oxidation and other forms of stress, or enzymes such as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase, which directly detoxify ROS. We tested the effectiveness of this approach in 3 models of photoreceptor degeneration and in a nerve crush model. AAV-mediated delivery of NRF2 was more effective than SOD2 and catalase, while expression of PGC1a accelerated photoreceptor death. Since the NRF2-mediated neuroprotective effects extended to photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells, which are 2 very different types of neurons, these results suggest that this targeted approach may be broadly applicable to many diseases in which cells suffer from oxidative damage.
Wenjun Xiong, Alexandra E. MacColl Garfinkel, Yiqing Li, Larry I. Benowitz, Constance L. Cepko
The use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene therapy vector has been approved recently for clinical use and has demonstrated efficacy in a growing number of clinical trials. However, the safety of AAV as a vector has been challenged by a single study that documented hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after AAV gene delivery in mice. Most studies have not noted genotoxicity following AAV-mediated gene delivery; therefore, the possibility that there is an association between AAV and HCC is controversial. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of HCC in a large number of mice following therapeutic AAV gene delivery. Using a sensitive high-throughput integration site-capture technique and global expressional analysis, we found that AAV integration into the RNA imprinted and accumulated in nucleus (
Randy J. Chandler, Matthew C. LaFave, Gaurav K. Varshney, Niraj S. Trivedi, Nuria Carrillo-Carrasco, Julien S. Senac, Weiwei Wu, Victoria Hoffmann, Abdel G. Elkahloun, Shawn M. Burgess, Charles P. Venditti
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that results from mutations in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (
Shuling Guo, Sheri L. Booten, Mariam Aghajan, Gene Hung, Chenguang Zhao, Keith Blomenkamp, Danielle Gattis, Andrew Watt, Susan M. Freier, Jeffery H. Teckman, Michael L. McCaleb, Brett P. Monia
Malaria, which is the result of
Lander Foquet, Cornelus C. Hermsen, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Eva Van Braeckel, Karin E. Weening, Robert Sauerwein, Philip Meuleman, Geert Leroux-Roels
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