The precise signals responsible for differentiation of blood-borne monocytes into tissue macrophages are incompletely defined. “Outside-in” signaling by integrins has been implicated in modulation of gene expression that affects cellular differentiation. Herein, using differential display PCR, we have cloned an 85-kDa forkhead transcription factor (termed Mac-1–regulated forkhead [MFH] and found subsequently to be identical to Foxp1) that is downregulated in β2-integrin Mac-1–clustered compared with Mac-1–nonclustered monocytic THP-1 cells. MFH/Foxp1 is expressed in untreated HL60 cells, and its expression was markedly reduced during phorbol ester–induced monocyte differentiation, but not retinoic acid–induced granulocyte differentiation. Overexpression of MFH/Foxp1 markedly attenuated phorbol ester–induced expression of c-fms, which encodes the M-CSF receptor and is obligatory for macrophage differentiation. This was accompanied by decreased CD11b expression, cell adhesiveness, and phagocytosis. Using electromobility shift and reporter assays, we have established that MFH/Foxp1 binds to previously uncharacterized sites within the c-fms promoter and functions as a transcriptional repressor. Deficiency of Mac-1 is associated with altered regulation of MFH/Foxp1 and monocyte maturation in vivo. Taken together, these observations suggest that Mac-1 engagement orchestrates monocyte-differentiation signals by regulating the expression of the forkhead transcription repressor MFH/Foxp1. This represents a new pathway for integrin-dependent modulation of gene expression and control of cellular differentiation.
Can Shi, Xiaobin Zhang, Zhiping Chen, Karina Sulaiman, Mark W. Feinberg, Christie M. Ballantyne, Mukesh K. Jain, Daniel I. Simon